A planer was used to uniformly shave wood. The flat side is for shaving wood, and the user would set the blade for the preferred depth. The planer pictured is a more basic example, but the tool house also includes fancier molding and tongue-and-groove planers. For example, one of those more detailed planers can be used along the edge of a log to create a groove, which will then be used as a joint in floorboards or paneling.
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“Planer,” Cabin Construction at Vance Birthplace, accessed September 27, 2023, https://vbcabinconstruction.omeka.net/items/show/42.